Esophageal achalasia: Symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Achalasia is a disorder of the esophagus in which the nerve cells and muscles do not work properly. This can lead to difficulties with swallowing, chest pain, regurgitation, and coughing and breathing problems, if food gets into the lungs. Esophageal achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder. Achalasia can affect any Continue Reading

Williams syndrome: Features, causes, and treatment

Williams syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental genetic disorder that features mild learning or developmental challenges, a high levels of calcium in the blood and urine, and a markedly outgoing personality. People with Williams syndrome (WS) often an unusual “elfin” appearance, with a low nasal bridge. Unique personality traits include a Continue Reading

Side effects: Medication, types of effect, cancer treatment

Side effects happen when a treatment causes a problem because it does more than treat the target issue. The impact can range from minor to severe and life-threatening. A side effect can, theoretically, be positive. For example, laser treatment for cataracts sometimes improves a person’s eyesight. An adverse effect, or Continue Reading